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Civil Rights
An Overview of Civil Rights in the United States


Free and Equal: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights at 50

Law and Race in the United States

Toward Inclusion: Meeting the Needs of Persons with Disabilities in the U.S.

Toward One America: A National Conversation on Race

Voting Technologies in the United States January 11, 2001
Congressional Research Service

Supreme Court Decisions

Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1856) (USSC+)
Upholding the institution of slavery

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896) (USSC+)
Jim Crow laws Separate but equal

Buchanan v. Warley, 245 U.S. 60 (1917) (USSC+)
Establishing equal access to housing

Shelley v. Kraemer, 334 U.S. 1 (1948) (USSC+)
Equal access to housing

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) (USSC+)
Equal access to education separate but equal does not work

Brown v. Board of Education, 349 U.S. 294 (1955) (USSC+)
Brown v. Board of Education upheld for all states

Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States, 379 U.S. 241 (1964) (USSC+)
Equal access to accommodation

Katzenbach v. McClung, 379 U.S. 294 (1964) (USSC+)
Service in a public establishment must not discriminate

Regents of the Univ. of Cal. v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978) (USSC+)
Affirmative Action in education

United Steelworkers of America, AFL-CIO-CLC v. Weber, 443 U.S. 193 (1979)
Affirmative Action in hiring

Bob Jones Univ. v. United States, 461 U.S. 574 (1983) (USSC+)
US government support prohibited from universities that discriminate

Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, 515 U.S. 200 (1995) (USSC+)
Federal contracting for minority and Women-owned small businesses

Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996)
Gays and lesbians can not be denied full protection

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U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Germany /Public Affairs/ Information Resource Centers 
Updated:September 2002